Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Nuremberg Trials Essays - International Criminal Law, War Crimes

Nuremberg Trials After World War II, numerous war-crimes trials tried and convicted many Axis leaders. Judges from Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States tried twenty-two Nazi leaders for: crimes against humanity (mostly about the Holocaust), violating long-established rules of war, and waging aggressive war. This was known as the ?Nuremberg Trials.? Late in 1946, the German defendants were indicted and arraigned before a war crimes tribunal at Nuremberg. Twenty of the defendants were physicians who, as governmental, military, or SS officials, stood at or near the top of the medical hierarchy of the Third Reich. The other three occupied administrative positions which brought them into close connection with medical affairs. It all started when people started hearing about the Nazi's in human acts, just about four months after World War II started. No one would believe that such a thing would happen. While the people were thinking like that the Jews were being shipped out of the country. Some of them were put in working camps or at a person's farm. This was the beginning of the Final Solution of the German's Problem (the Holocaust). On August 8 the Four Power nation signed the London Agreement. They later named it the International Military Tribunal (IMT), it had 8 judges, one judge and one alternate. This was made so that they would try to stop the Nazi crimes (Rice Jr. 81). They had supplementary Nuremberg hearings that were broken down into twelve trials. In connection with these trials, the U.S. military tribunals had thirty-five defendants and released nineteen of them because they could find anything to get them on (Rice Jr. 76). They made Nuremberg Laws because of Hitler's concentration camps and his other inhuman acts (Rice Jr. 31). He didn't go by the lead system, he made himself the Supreme Judge. Hitler could imprison or execute anyone he wanted to. He made laws keeping Jews out of certain public places or jobs. He wouldn't let Jews have German citizenship. The Nuremberg Laws stated that there would be no more inhuman acts or segregation of Jews. One of the positive sides of the Nuremberg incident was the trials documented Nazi crimes for posterity. Many citizens of the world remember hearing about the Nazi's brutalities and inhuman acts (Rice Jr., 5). Hundreds of official Nazi documents entered into evidence at Nuremberg tell the horrible tale of the Third Reich in the Nazi's own words. Six million Jews, and others not liked by the Nazis were killed. Not one convicted Nazi denied that the mass killing had occurred. Each disclaimed only personal knowledge and responsibility. The negative things that happened at Nuremberg were the establishment of the I.M.T. has yet to le ad to a permanent counterpart before which crimes against humanity can be tried. Twenty-four wars between nations and ninety-three civil wars or insurgencies between 1945 and 1992, no international body had been convened to try aggressor nations or individuals accused of war crimes. To prosecute and punish aggression rest still on the wavering will of an international community ever reluctant to impose sanctions on offending governments (Rice Jr. 100). Despite the reluctance of nations to unite in common cause and move swiftly toward a lasting road to aggression, hope yes abides for the best of Nuremberg's brightest promise. The world had a problem of what to do about the Nazi regime that had presided over the extermination of some six million Jews and deaths of millions of others with no basis in military necessity. Never before in history had the victors tried the vanquished for crimes committed during a war (Rice Jr., 97). Yet never in history had the vanquished perpetrated crime s of such inhumanity. The I.M.T., like the courts in many countries, have held to the principle that persons committing a criminal violation of international law are responsible for violation, on the grounds that crimes of this nature are the result of their own acts (Rice 1492). The tribunal thought for crimes carried out on orders from above, since many of the crimes had been committed in one with the Reich policy (Rice 1493). The portion of the I.M.T. judgment dealing with war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by

Friday, March 6, 2020

Free Essays on Tell Tale Heart

Critical Analysis on Poe’s The Tell Tale Heart The Tell Tale Heart looks in depth at the actions taken by a mad man and the reasons behind them. The narrator has grown disgusted by the old man’s cataract eye and decides that he must get rid of it in order to live in harmony. However, there is another major conflict in the story questioning the man’s sanity. By claiming more than once in the story why he isn’t mad, he is basically revealing how sick he really is. In a strange humor, the story describes a man who thinks he’s perfectly fine, while calmly explaining the murder of an old man with a cataract eye. The biggest conflict in Poe’s short story is simple; the main character is insane. He will not be satisfied until his problem is gone. Unfortunately, this means someone must die. The narrator’s madness is triggered by the old man’s cataract eye. It gradually wore on him until he could tolerate no more. The narrator states that the old man, â€Å"had never wronged me.† He claims that he loved the old man yet he made up his mind and decided that he must,† rid myself of the eye forever.† So there it is, the theme of the story right? Perhaps, but what about another conflict ? It seems as if the man is in denial. He doesn’t think that he’s mentally unstable. In fact, the narrator frequently explains why he is not mad. â€Å"The disease has simply sharpened my senses†¦not dulled them.† However he is crazy, and instead of explaining why he isn’t, he just further proved the fact that he is. He gets nervous and excited before telling the story, but he’s perfectly fine in the head. It doesn’t quite make sense to those who are actually sane. After describing the steps he took for the murder, the man once again claims he is not insane. â€Å"If you still think me mad, you will think so no longer when I describe the wise precautions I took for the concealment of the body.† To a normal person it seems more l... Free Essays on Tell Tale Heart Free Essays on Tell Tale Heart â€Å"THE TELL-TALE HEART† â€Å"The Tell-Tale Heart† shows the precision of Edgar Allan Poe’s horror. In this book there is never any mention of the main characters name. The only title given is to the old man whom the mad-man kills. The book starts out with a man professing to the reader of how he is not truly a mad-man. He continues to say how no one as clever and intelligent as he was could be mad. After the brief introduction of his insanity, the mad-man continues his tirade on how the old man in his apartment complex has an evil eye that he can’t stand to look at. He begins to plot a murder for the old man. He explains again that he has nothing against the old man, it is just his eye that he can’t stand. Eventually, the mad-man begins to develop his plot against the old man. He begins sticking his head through the old man’s door at midnight and watching him. He takes a lantern and opens the light shade just enough to where he can get a direct ray of light on the man’s evil eye while he is sleeping. He does this for several nights to build up his confidence of his upcoming murder plans. He continues to profess his innocence of being a mad-man. He comments that a mad-man would not make this k! ind of well thought out plan. As he continues to carry out his preparatory plans for the murder, he grows bolder and bolder every time he sneaks into the old man’s room. However, as the time for his murder comes closer, he feels he can’t commit the murder unless he sees the man’s eye. He says that it is the eye he wants to kill, not the man. Finally, the mad-man sneaks into the man’s room, awakens him for a moment, the man becomes nervous and starts to think of what the noise was that he heard. As the man lays back down, the mad-man tells himself that it is time, so he makes a quick move toward the man that causes him to sit up alert, the mad man jumps on him and suffocates him with his bed. The man wa... Free Essays on Tell Tale Heart Critical Analysis on Poe’s The Tell Tale Heart The Tell Tale Heart looks in depth at the actions taken by a mad man and the reasons behind them. The narrator has grown disgusted by the old man’s cataract eye and decides that he must get rid of it in order to live in harmony. However, there is another major conflict in the story questioning the man’s sanity. By claiming more than once in the story why he isn’t mad, he is basically revealing how sick he really is. In a strange humor, the story describes a man who thinks he’s perfectly fine, while calmly explaining the murder of an old man with a cataract eye. The biggest conflict in Poe’s short story is simple; the main character is insane. He will not be satisfied until his problem is gone. Unfortunately, this means someone must die. The narrator’s madness is triggered by the old man’s cataract eye. It gradually wore on him until he could tolerate no more. The narrator states that the old man, â€Å"had never wronged me.† He claims that he loved the old man yet he made up his mind and decided that he must,† rid myself of the eye forever.† So there it is, the theme of the story right? Perhaps, but what about another conflict ? It seems as if the man is in denial. He doesn’t think that he’s mentally unstable. In fact, the narrator frequently explains why he is not mad. â€Å"The disease has simply sharpened my senses†¦not dulled them.† However he is crazy, and instead of explaining why he isn’t, he just further proved the fact that he is. He gets nervous and excited before telling the story, but he’s perfectly fine in the head. It doesn’t quite make sense to those who are actually sane. After describing the steps he took for the murder, the man once again claims he is not insane. â€Å"If you still think me mad, you will think so no longer when I describe the wise precautions I took for the concealment of the body.† To a normal person it seems more l...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Personal Ethical Statement Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Personal Ethical Statement - Assignment Example My blind spot, according to the inventory, is the belief that my motives will always justify the methods. Most of the time I fail when it comes to accountability; I have always placed my demands and needs first and I do not care explaining to those who depend on me so long as my needs are satisfied. In addition, sometimes I become complacent and leave many problems unsolved intentionally. People around me always get upset because I always focus on my own motives and ignore the obvious problems around us. My strength lies balancing my entrepreneurship with my responsibilities. I strongly value autonomy since I am self-reliant and accountable to my community. Thus, I avoid being rigid, stick to the usual duties and attempt to follow my dream whenever I get the slightest opportunity. On the other hand, my weakness is becoming greedy or judgmental in my expectations of others. Thus, I am always quick to criticize and label others unethical whenever my coworkers do not meet their job targets or rather fulfill their responsibilities. My values, as per this inventory are sensible and rational. I am a person with the full potential when it comes to finding solutions to societal problems. Managing a personal business is what I want to pursue because this inventory have taught me how to relate with people, regardless of age, social status, sex or race. I have bigger dreams that would benefit my community but in the meantime, working on my weaknesses is my priority since it will shape who I

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Chinese Film Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Chinese Film - Essay Example The reasons why film is particularly suited for semi-unimpeded movement across national borders, cultural boundaries and linguistic barriers will be illustrated in this essay through reference to Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Through a critical analysis of this production, the essay will expose the extent to which this supposedly Chinese film is, as with cinema in general, a transnational work. Globalisation has, undoubtedly, maximised cinema's capacity to function as a transnational medium of communication. As Lu (1997) asserts, contrary to immediate assumptions, this is not because globalisation has facilitated the movement of goods and services across borders or because it is characterised by an intricate network of transnational interpersonal communication system (internet), but because film has become transnational. Ethnic and national cinema is decreasingly purely ethnic and increasingly international in scope (Lu, 1997). The veracity of the aforementioned is perfectly evidenced in Ang Lee's 'Chinese' film, Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. ... Produced and released in 2000, the film won, within the context of non-English speaking cinema, unprecedented international acclaim and box office success, even scooping up four Oscars (Rose, 2001). The film's budget of fifteen million dollars was the highest ever for a Chinese language film and became the most commercially successful foreign film ever to be distributed worldwide, grossing more than two hundred million dollars in global box office receipts (Rose, 2001). Its international success cannot be divorced from the inherently transnational character of the production. As Cheshire (2001) writes, Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon's director, Ang Lee, was born in Taiwan, studied theatre acting and directing at the Taiwan Academy of Arts in Taipei, received a bachelor's degree in theatre at the University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign, and continued his studies in film at New York University in the nation's cultural melting pot. By the time he made Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, Le e had already completed three Chinese language films and three Hollywood projects (Cheshire, 2001). In 1995, the British screenwriter and actress, Emma Thompson, invited Lee to adapt Austen's British classic Sense and Sensibility to the cinema. Then Lee took on the American suburbs of the 1970s in Ice Storm (1997) and the war-torn American South in Ride with the Devil (1999) (Cheshire, 2001). Apart from the thoroughly transnational character of its director, Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon (2000) includes such transnational artistic talents as Chow Yun-Fat (Hong Kong), Michelle Yeoh (born in Malaysia, but began her film career in Hong Kong), Zhang Ziyi (China), Chang Chen (Taiwan), and Cheng Pei-pei (Hong Kong). The cinematographer Peter Pau and fight

Monday, January 27, 2020

Principles of Corporate Social Responsibility

Principles of Corporate Social Responsibility CSR can be defined as an organization taking responsibility for the results of its activities upon employees, customers, the community and the environment. Usually organizations voluntarily exercise their improvements, commitments and performance reporting. CSR is the need for organizations to consider the greater good of their actions and the effect on all those around the organization from within, local community and globally. Often the effects must be thought of in terms of the economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic impact or basically business decision of cost to implement versus return on investment. CSR is the process that guides company decision making and implementation activities in the areas of human rights, environmental standards, and compliance with legal requirements within its operations. PRACTICE: CSR can be thought of as the challenge organizations face to balance their social responsibilities with that of increased earnings and concerns according to shareholder and stakeholder expectations. CSR is generally applied to wherever firms operate encompassing both domestic and global economy. CSR applies to both the private sector commitments and activities then stretches beyond the just compliance with laws. Many organizations believe that focusing on new opportunities in interrelated economic, societal, or environmental demands in the marketplace provides a competitive advantage and stimulates creative solutions. PARTICULARS: CSR activities usually address many aspects of a firms behavior and key elements like health and safety, environmental community development, human rights, human resource management, community development, consumer protection, labor protection, supplier relations, business ethics, and stakeholder rights. Organizations are motivated to have stakeholders involved in their decision making process. A CSR approach is to promises the following. Improved financial performance. Improved accountability to investors. Improved employee commitment. Improved community relationships. Improved product branding. PERSONS: Bristol-Myers CEO Peter Dolan- His company has emerged from recent trouble due to issues stemming from the drug Plavix which is a blood thinner. Because of these and other past mistakes, Bristol-Myers has emerged a stronger company. An example is in the area of its environmental impact on the world, Bristol-Myers has reduced their greenhouse emission by 10% and worked towards obtaining a U.S. Green Building Council certified facility. Merck CEO Richard Clark- his company had problems with Vioxx, but has managed to solve those problems with programs that include a Corporate Responsibility Council that works to increase the number of employees involved. Transparency has been the major improvement within his company. HIP Investor CEO Paul Herman- is a corporate social responsibility consultant who believes grass roots produce the best solutions. One method is reaching out to the employees through an intranet that will give them a chance to express what improvements can be made and what community programs they will volunteer for. Korn-Ferry CEO Jay Millen- recommends a social; responsibility is not just a policy, it is a philosophy. A corporation should have a top-down strategy for CSR; if the philosophy and values are correct the rules will follow. PERIOD: Time period 1800s- CSR first started during this time period where companies that operated in rural areas build company towns. These towns including housing, stores, schools, and playground for children of their employees. Time period of 1930s- As part of President Franklin Roosevelts New Deal program, companies received tax breaks for donating money to charities. Time period of 1960s- Government steps in to regulate business with the formation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration(OSHA), Equal Employment Opportunity Commission(EEOC), and the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA). This has compelled some companies to become more politically involved by contributing time and money to non-profits. Time period 2005- Surveys show that 98% of large corporations apply CSR in their strategic planning and 84% have seen their profits increase because of their actions. PLACES: Australia Established human rights laws that mandated the corporations must practice proper ethical behavior and human rights principals within their country and overseas. United States Environmental Protection Agency has enforced the standards established by the federal government for corporations in protection of the environment. United Nations This global organization has established policy for human rights throughout the world. PHRASES: CSR key terms- Charity principle- The principle that the riches people in the world should donate to the less fortunate. Stewardship Principle- mangers have an obligation to ensure benefits from their actions in society. Reputation- The essential characteristics that a corporation that influence their relations with the stakeholders. Enlightened self interest- The view that a company can be socially aware without losing its own objectives. Corporate citizenship- Apply CSR into practice. Legal obligation- The laws a company must follow established by the government. Iron law of responsibility- In the long run, those that do not use their authority in actions that society consider proper will lose it. PICTURES: Paul Hawken quote- If they (companies) believe they are in business to serve people, to help solve problems, to use and employ the ingenuity of their workers to improve the lives of people around them by learning from the nature that gives us life, we have a chance (Amaeshi, Osuji Nnodin, 2008, p.223). Karl-Henrik Robert quote- Business is the economic engine of our Western culture, and if it could be transformed to truly serve nature as well as ourselves, it could become essential to our rescue (Iankova, 2008, p.77). Mikhail Gorbachev quote We need a new system of values, a system of the organic between humankind and nature and the ethic of global responsibility (Amaeshi, Osuji Nnodin, 2008, p.223). Robert F. Kennedy quote- The future is not completely beyond our control. It is the work of our own hands (Pava, 2008, p.807). David Korten quote- to achieve true sustainability, we must reduce our garbage index that which we permanently throw away into the environment that will not be naturally recycled for reuse to near zero. Productive activities must be organized as closed systems. Minerals and other nonbiodegradeable, resources once taken from the ground, must become a part of societys permanent capital stock and be recycled in perpetuity, organic materials may be disposed into the natural ecosystems, but only in ways that assure that they are absorbed back into the natural production system (Amaeshi, Osuji Nnodin, 2008, p.223). Martin Luther King, Jr. quote- Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter (Iankova, 2008, p.77). PROSPECTS: The European Commission list of benefits for companies that adopt CSR criteria: Business ethics, the personal commitment of the companys directors, improve competitive, strengthen the companys image, prevent negative publicity, lawsuits or campaigns against the company, increase customer loyalty, stand out from the competition, improve human resources management, strengthen the loyalty of management staff, attract new employees, improve adaptation to change, cost reduction, tax breaks, less worker strikes (Fuentes-Garcia, F., Nunez-Tables, J. Veroz-Herradon, R., 2008). Research conduct my recent surveys have concluded the companies that practice CSR have increase financial success. A confirm fact from a recent customer survey the 70 % of customers indicated that they were more likely to buy from a socially responsible firm, in turn 50 % indicated that they not buy from a firm that was not socially responsible. PROBLEMS: Multinational corporations using operate outside the control of international laws. There is no international forum in which they could be prosecuted. CSR has limitations. The major limitation is that most ethical behaviors or charities which come under CSR require financial contributions. Some mangers feel their propriety should be making a profit for the stakeholders instead of giving money away to charities. PERFORMANCE: Examples of corporation that practice CSR principles. Nike has improved working conditions in their operations overseas. FedEx has begun to use hybrid trucks. General Electric has built health care centers in Africa. Employees are a key for CSR; they volunteer for community projects, are loyal to the company which results in increased profits. An organizations reputation has an effect on CSR; the impact can affect financial performance positively. Philanthropy by CSRs is interpreted positively by the public and organizations are often given the benefit of the doubt resulting steady stock prices. Sales increase CSR for corporations; cause-related marketing initiatives generates money through increased product sales and at the same time benefit charities. Poor CSR can negatively affect earnings and stock prices because of potential lawsuits and fines. PUBLICATIONS: Amaeshi, K., Osuji, O. Nnodim, P. (2008). Corporate social responsibility in supply chains of global brands: a boundaryless responsibility? Clarifications, expectations and implications. Journal of Business Ethics, 81 (1), 223-234. Fuentes-Garcia, F., Nunez-Tables, J. Veroz-Herradon, R. (2008). Applicability of corporate social responsibility to human resources management: perspective from Spain. Journal of Business Ethics, 82 (1), 27-44. Iankova, E. (2008). From corporate paternalism to corporate social responsibility in post communist Europe. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 29 (1), 75-89. Iyer, A. (2009). Corporate social responsibility and farmer suicides: a case for benign paternalism? Journal of Business Ethics, 85 (4), 429-443. Lawrence, A. Weber, J. (2008). Business Society: Stakeholders, Ethics, Public Policy (12 ed.). New York, New York, United States of America: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Pava, M. (2008). Why corporations should not abandon social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 83 (4), 805-812. Pfau, M., Haigh, M., Sims, J. Wigley, S. (2008). The influence of corporate social responsibility campaigns on public opinion. Corporate Reputation Review, 11 (2), 145-154. Ubius, U. Alas, R. (2009). Organizational culture types as predictors of corporate social responsibility. Engineering Economics, 61 (1), 90-99. Valentine, S. Fleischman, G. (2008). Professional ethical standards, corporate social responsibility, and the perceived role of ethics and social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 82 (3), 657-666. National Directory of Corporate Giving. Directories Table HV80.N26. Columbia University Libraries database. http://www.columbia.edu/web/indiv/ business / refservices.html Web Sites and Internet Resources: http://search.ebscohost.com/ http://treehugger.com http://word.world-citizenship.org http://www.columbia.edu/ http://www.depauw.edu http://www.emeraldinsight.com http://www.google.com http://www.ineedmotivation.com / http://www.internationalpeaceandconflict.org/ http://www.robertfkennedylinks.com

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Henry David Thoreau †“Why I Went to the Woods” Essay

This excerpt is from his famous essay, â€Å"On the Duty of Civil Disobedience†. First, some background; in 1842, his brother John died of lockjaw. Three years later, Henry decided to write a book commemorating a canoe trip he had taken with John in 1839. Seeking a quiet place to write, he followed a friend’s suggestion and built a small cabin on the north shore of Walden Pond on a piece of land owned by his friend and mentor, Ralph Waldo Emerson. He started work on his cabin in March of 1845. On the 4th of July, he moved in. Thus began one of the great and lasting experiments in life and thought of the whole of human experience. â€Å"I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived.† Thoreau otherwise filled his time by working in his garden, talking with visitors, reading, and writing in his diary. B ut most of all, he walked and thought, and it’s difficult to tell now which was the more important activity. It seems that, in his two years living in his little cabin in the woods he brought himself to a state of conscious living, where thought and action were harmoniously combined. This story is about his rejection of the world’s definition of ‘success’ and so he demanded a life of personal freedom. He went to the woods, built a humble cabin on the edge of Walden Pond, Concord, Massachusetts†¦and learned about nature and life. He rejected the Establishment and all its trappings. He saw such possessions as fancy clothes and elaborate furniture as so much extra baggage. He demanded a fresh, uncluttered existence with time for self-exploration. He would, he told the world, â€Å"breathe after his own fashion.† All aspects of life for Thoreau focused on simplicity. When Thoreau’s two years at Walden had ended, he left with no regrets: â€Å"I left the woods for as good a reason as why I went there. Perhaps it seemed to me that I had several more lives t o live, and could not spare any more time for that one . . . â€Å" His experiment had been a success. Thoreau had learned many lessons, had taken time to examine his inner self and his world, and proved he could live under the simplest conditions and still be fulfilled: â€Å"I learned this, at least, by my experiment; that as one advances confidently in the direction of his dreams, and endeavors to live the life which he has imagined, he will meet with a success unexpected in common hours.† To him, most men live lives of â€Å"quiet desperation,† and have needed to simplify, to cast off material  encumbrances and achieve true freedom. The stages of spiritual evolution that a man passes through all prepare him for the more difficult inner development; and every man, he believed, possesses an inner spiritual instinct which, if nurtured and cared for, will divulge his divine nature.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Poetry Analysis of Ask Me Essay

In the poem â€Å"Ask Me,† the poet, William Stafford, gives the reader a strong sense of imagery, it describes the river so vividly, so creatively. This poem is a very good poem, and is actually very mysterious and a little bit almost questionable about the theme of the poem. Basically what I get from the poem is, the speaker is not ashamed of who he or she is and you can ask them any questions about their past and they will gladly answer. It’s almost as if it is kind of testing the speaker, like will or she actually answer the question? And the answer is most definitely yes. As for the meaning, I am not too sure. I guess some poetry cannot always be explained so well but that’s okay because I still enjoy reading it and trying to figure out what it is about. But I can pretty much understand the gist of the poem. It is just the last line that gets me, â€Å"What the river says, that is what I say.† It’s haunting almost chilling to me to read that. Shivers seriously run down my spine when I read that. So, from the poem, I basically get the vibe it is saying, the speaker has had a long life full of, love, hurt, pin, heartbreak etc, but ask him anything about his past or anything and he isn’t ashamed of it. He will proudly answer to anything and take responsibility for what he has caused and what he’s been through. I personally have tried analyzing this poem for about a week now, and it has been so difficult for me to find the real meaning of this poem. And very difficult to try and understand the tone and mood. So, although I wasn’t able to find a whole bunch about the poem, I found it very interesting and enjoyed even looking up this poem further and reading about the author and what other people took from this poem. So overall, this poem is a very well written poem and the ideas are endless of what it could mean.